"No spacecraft arrives in space unless transported there by some launch vehicle. Launchers originally derived from ballistic missile designs and were therefore initially controlled exclusively by the military. By the late 1950s and early 1960s, however, both the Soviet Union and the U.S. realized that the initial ballistic missile designs that used liquid cryogenic propellants were poor choices for weapons, compared to solid and liquid storable designs. Cryogenic systems using liquid oxygen provided greater performance and thus continued to be used to put spacecraft in orbit, whereas ballistic missiles switched to storable technologies that could be launched within minutes or seconds instead of hours or days required for cryogenic systems."
Societal Impact of Spaceflight, Steven J. Dick, Roger D. Launius